dher-2, dherǝ-

dher-2, dherǝ-
    dher-2, dherǝ-
    English meaning: to hold, support
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “halten, festhalten, stũtzen”
    Material: O.Ind. dhar- “hold, stop, bear, carry, prop, support, receive, hold upright “ (present mostly dhürá yati; perf. dadhǘ ra, dadhrḗ ; dhr̥tá-; dhártum) pass. “ are held back, be steady, behave sedately “, Av. dar- “hold, seize, restrain; whereof adhere, observe (a law); hold fast in the memory; perceive with the senses, grasp; sojourn, while, stay” (dürayeiti etc, participle darǝta-), аp. dürayümiy “hold”, Pers. Inf. düštan, Osset. Inf. darun, daryn; O.Ind. dháraṇa- “bearing, carrying, preserving “, dharúṇa- “ holding, supporting; n. foundation, prop”, dhǘ raṇ a- “ holding; n. the clamps, the restraining “= Av. dürana- n. “ means for withholding “, O.Ind. dhartár- and dháritar- m. “ holder “, dharitrī “ girder, bearer “, dhartrá- n. ‘support, prop” = Av. darǝϑra- n. “ the grasp, understanding “, O.Ind. dhárma- (= Lat. firmus) m. “ firm, strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong “, dharmán- m. “ holder “, dhárman- n. “ support, prop, law, custom “, dhárīmani loc. “ after the statute, according to custom “, dhǘ raka- “ holding; m. container “, dhr̥ti- f. “ the holding on, determination “, dr̥- dhr-á- “ tenacious “, sá-dhrī (or sadhrīm) adv. “ holding out on a purpose, holding on to a purpose “, sadhríy-аñc- “ be directed by a purpose, be united, together “; didhīršü “ the intention to support to support”, Av. didarǝšatü “ he composes himself for, he gets ready for “; about O.Ind. dhī́ ra- “tight, firm” s. Wackernagel O.Ind. Gk. I 25; Arm. perhaps dadar (redupl.) “abode, residence, rest “ (“*adherence, abide by, stay”, compare Av. meaning “ while, stay, behave quietly “), dadarem “ abate (from the wind)”, compare under O.E. darian “ the side, flank; of persons “, Dutch bedaren “ become quiet (from the wind, weather)”; Gk. with the meaning “ prop themselves up, force open “ (from the heavy root form) θρᾶνος m. “ bench, footstool “, Hom. (Ion.) θρῆνυς, -υος “ footstool, thwart “, Ion. θρῆνυξ, böot. θρᾶνυξ, -υκος ‘stool” (place an early Proto-Gk. *θρᾱνο-, which would contain -ρᾱ- from -r̄-, i.e. -erǝ-), Ion. Inf. Aor. θρήσασθαι “ sit down “ (Proto-Gk. θρᾱ-); due to the thematic root form *dherĕ-: θρό-νος m. ‘seat”; Cypr. lak. θόρ-ναξ ὑποπόδιον Hes.; with the meaning “ grasp through the senses, observe “ and “ hold on custom, a religious custom “, ἀ-θερές ἀνόητον, ἀνόσιον Hes. (compare under Lith. dere ́ti “ be usable “), ἐνθρεῖν φυλάσσειν Hes. (from the thematic root form *dhere-; against it from *dherǝ-:) θρήσκω νοῶ Hes. (Ion.), θράσκειν (ᾱ) ἀναμιμνήσκειν Hes., Ion. θρησκηΐη, Koine θρησκεία “worship”, θρῆσκος “religious, godly, pious”, θρησκεύω “ observe the official law of god “. Is ἀθρέω “observe keenly “ up to zero grade n̥ the preposition *en (or α- = *sm̥-?) to compare afterwards with ἐνθρεῖν? (Lith. by Boisacq s. v.) Probably here ἁθρόος, ἀθρόος “ concentrated, crowded together, gathered “ (compare to meaning O.Ind. sadhryañc-; Lith. by Boisacq s. v., in addition Brugmann IF. 38, 135 f.). With. O.Ind. dhüraka- “ container “ is compared with θώρᾱξ, -ᾱκος “ brostplate; trunk; vagina”. Lat. frē-tus “ relying on, confiding in “, Umbr. frite “leaning, supported, relying, depending, trusting, daring, confident; trust, confidence, reliance, assurance”, Lat. frēnum “ bit, bridle, rein” and “rein”, if originally “ holder “ (stand to Gk. θρᾶνος as plē-nus to O.Ind. pūr-n̥á-); with a meaning “ tenacious, tight, firm: fast” perhaps ferē “closely, almost, nearly “, fermē (*ferĭmēd, Sup.) “ quite approximately, nearly “, as well as firmus “ firm, strong, stout; lasting, valid; morally strong “ (with dial. i). O.Welsh emdrit “ orderly “, Welsh dryd “ economical “ (*dhr̥to-). O.E. darian “ hidden, concealed, secret, unknown “ (“*restrain, hold themselves together, “ or “ keep shut so one does not see somehow “), Dutch bedaren “ become quiet (from the wind, weather)”, in addition O.S. derni “hide, conceal”, O.E. dierne “hide, conceal, clandestine “, O.H.G. tarni “ lying hid, hidden, concealed, secret, unknown “, tarnen, M.H.G. tarnen “cover up, conceal”, Ger. Tarn-kappe. Lith. deriù, dere ́ti “employ, engage (*belay), buy”, derù, derėt́ i “ be usable “, Kaus. darãu, darūti “make, do”, dorà f. “ the useful “, Ltv. deru, derêt “employ, engage, hire out, arrange “, Kaus. darît “make, create, originate”; perhaps with formants -go-: Ltv. dǜ rgs “dear, expensive, precious”, O.C.S. dragъ ds., Russ. dórog, Ser.-Cr. drâg ds.; Hitt. tar-ah̯-zi (tarḫzi) “ can, be able, defeated “ (*dhr̥̄-?) belongs rather to ter-4. guttural extensions: dheregh- “hold, stop, hold down; tight, firm”: Av. dražaite, Inf. drüjaŋhe “hold, stop, contain oneself, guide, lead”, upadaržuvainti “ they hold out, persist = accomplish, finish “, wherefore O.Ind. -dhr̥k (only nom.) in compounds “bearing, carrying”; this form (*dhr̥gh-s) testifies for anlaut dh- the ar. and hence probably also Slav. family; O.C.S. drъžǫ , drъžati “hold, stop, contain “ (etc, s. Berneker 258); Russ. drogá “ wooden bar or metal strip uniting the front and the rear axis of a cart, centre pole “, Dem. dróžki pl. “ light, short carriage “, hence Ger. Droschke. As nasalized forms in addition Av. drǝnjaiti “ solidifies, strengthens, hardens “, ü- drǝnjayeiti “ determines “, Desiderativ dīdraɣžaite “ looks for protecting himself “; participle draxta-; also Av. drǝnjayeiti, düdrüjoiš, participle draxta- “ learnt by heart, murmured memorized prayers “ (compare Church Slavic tvrъditi “ moor “: Russ. tverditь “ learn by heart “); M.Ir. dringid “ he climbs “, drēimm “climb” (“*holding on climbing”); kymr. dringo “ rise, climb “; O.N. drangr “ high cliff “, drengr (*drangja-) “thick stick, column “ (and ũbertr. “young man, husband”), O.C.S. drǫgъ “ shaft, pole, turnpike “; different Specht Decl. 139. dhereĝh- “hold down, tight, firm”: O.Ind. dŕ̥hyati, dr̥ṁhati (dr̥ṁháti) “makes tight, firm”, participle dr̥ḍhá- “tight, firm”, drahyát- “proficient”, Av. darǝzayeiti “binds tight, fetters”, Desid. dīdǝrǝžaiti, darǝza- m. “ the fastening, binding, snatch, griffin “, dǝrǝz- f. “band, manacle”, dǝrǝzra- “tight, firm”, probably also Pers. darz “ suture” and similar to Iran. words for “ sew filament “; Thrac. GN Darzales; probably Lith. dir̃žas ‘strap”, diržmas ‘strong”, O.Pruss. dīrstlan ‘strong, stately”, dirž-tù, dir̃žti “ become tenacious, hard “; Lith. dar̃žas “garden”, Ltv. dǜ rz “garden, courtyard, enclosure, fenced area “ could be reconverted from *žar̃ das (compare Lith. žar̃ dis “ Roßgarten “, žá rdas “ hurdle “) (different Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 448 f.), but to dir̃žas (above) and O.H.G. zarge, M.H.G. zarge f. “ border, side, verge of a space, edge “; Slav. *dьrzъ “bold, foolhardy “ in O.C.S. drъzъ, Sloven. dr̂z, Cz. drzū, Russ. dérzkij ds. and O.C.S. drьznǫ, drьznǫti “ have the audacity, venture “, Russ. derznútь etc. dhereugh-: awN.. driūgr “ withstanding, strong, full”, driūgum “very”, aschw. drȳgher “ respectable, strong, big, large”, N.Fris. dreegh “tight, firm, persistent “ (but to dhreugh-1 belong O.E. drȳge “dry”, drēahnian “ dry up, strain, filter”, - with h instead of g? -, O.N. draugr “ withered tree trunk”, O.H.G. truchan “dry”); maybe nasalized Alb. trung “ tree trunk” here as “ withstand “ and “ hold together - assemble “ Goth. driugan “ do military service “ (O.E. drēogan “ withstand, commit “), O.E. gedrēag “troop, multitude, crowd”, O.H.G. truhtf. “ cohort, troop, multitude, crowd”, O.S.druht-, O.E. dryht, O.N. drōtt f. “ cortege “, Goth. draúhti-witōÞ “(*laws of war =) military service “, gadraúhts “warrior”, O.N. drōttinn “prince, lord, master, mister”, O.E. dryhten, O.H.G. truhtīn “master, mister” (suffix as in Lat. dominus), O.H.G. trust (*druhsti-) “ warrior’s troop “; Lith. draũgas “ travelling companion “, O.C.S. drugъ “ fellow, other etc”, družina “συστρατιῶται”; O.Pruss. drūktai adv. “tight, firm”, podrūktinai “ I confirm “, Lith. žem. drúktas, driúktas “thick, bulky, strong”; O.Ir. drong “troop, multitude, crowd”, O.Bret. drogn “ meeting together, union, assembly “, drog “ a party, group; esp. a political party, faction, side “ are, as late Lat. drungus “ troop “ borrowed from Gmc. (see under trenq-1).
    References: WP. I 856 ff., WH. 505 f., 536, Trautmann 45, 59 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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